The establishment of Makoni Kingdom

This article dwells on the birth and growth of Makoni kingdom. Makoni District is located in Manicaland province that is north-eastern part of Zimbabwe.  The settlement pattern is said to have been drawn by the BSAC- British Southern African Company. This settlement pattern was affected by both first and second Chimurenga which saw disturbance in growth and development. However, the attainment of independence saw massive development in Makoni district. Development was witnessed in key structures of education, agriculture, infrastructure and health. As these development goals are being implemented, Chief Makoni and his predecessors had a vision of mapping Makoni society into a more developed and civilised community. It is also regarded as one of the richest regions in Zimbabwe with its wealth ranging from cattle rearing, abundant fertile and arable land and good climatic conditions. Cultural values and religious norms are also preserved in the district like most societies.

Chieftainship History.

 A society is moulded by its ability to sustain its population. Chieftainship has managed to preserve the Makoni lands and heritage. Like other Shona communities, Makoni society is believed to have emanated from Mozambique where they settled after leaving the Great East lakes in East Africa . The Makoni kingdom is also referred to as  Maungwe Kingdom and it was founded in 1635.   The Maungwe rulers (title Mambo) are as follows: Makoni IX Muswati (1831 – 1839), Makoni X Zendera (1839 – 1840), Mukunyadze (1840 – 1865), Makoni XI Nyamahindi (1865 – 1889), Makoni XII Muruko (1889 – 1896), Makoni XIII Mutota (Chingaira) and Makoni XIV Ndapfunya (1896 – 1921). The above named are the great rulers of Maungwe kingdom. Currently, Chief Cogen Simbayi Gwasira is in charge of the district. Makoni is Nyati, Shonga, Mhenyu and Makoni totem is Nyati -Buffalo one of the big five animals in Zimbabwe. They say Nyati Imhenyu-meaning a buffalo is ever alive. Makoni rulers were regarded as fighters of social injustice from the white colonial settlers. For instance, Chief Gandanzara ruled from 1996 to 2008 and he managed to fight for land and resettled his people in fertile lands. The Makoni princesses are regarded as a symbol of wealth and they had a special burial site. Oral evidence suggests that, the princesses were buried at sacred mountain of Chitsotso in Rusape. This mountain is being preserved even today through the respect of sound and viable cultural norms and values. It is therefore prudent to say that Makoni district under the stewardship of Nyathi/ Shonga people has flourished economically and socially and thus it became a civilised community.

Makoni Society.

Makoni district is one of the richest society in Manicaland Zimbabwe. The district covers areas of as Chendambuya, Mapaurura, Chinhenga, Tsanzaguru, and Tsikada, Nyahove and Bingaguru to mention but a few. These places are regarded as the hub of agriculture in Maungwe dynasty. Abundant land for crop cultivation saw the growing of maize, rapoko-mapfunde and mhunga-sorghum, millet, groundnuts-nzungu, and sunflowers. As the place is not urbanised, the society had developed methods of self-sustenance and survival. Growing of commercial crops like sunflowers for the production of cooking oil is an indicator of prosperity. Processing of sunflower seeds to oil is also being done by man-made machines designed and made by blacksmiths in the district. Thus the growing of maize and other grains is being witnessed by storage bins- matura at nearly every household. This indicator clearly depicts that, Maungwe society is endowed and clustered by able – bodied people who have the vision of transforming Makoni district. As the area receives high rainfall, some areas such as Tsikada, Mhandambiri are swampy and hence, the people inhabiting these area enjoy the growing of traditional rice- mupunga, yams- madhumbe and mbambaira (sweet potatoes). These crops provide good dietary needs for the Maungwe people and thus supplementing food distribution in Makoni area. Groundnuts farming has also tremendously transformed the Maungwe community in that it’s regarded as cash crop. The crop attracts buyers from Harare, Bulawayo and Mutare. Proceeds of selling of ground nuts are channelled to other needs and wants of the Maungwe people.

Cattle is regarded as a symbol of wealth like in many other societies in Zimbabwean. This ideology was thus bestowed by Maungwe leadership. Maungwe/ Nyathi/ Shonga chieftainship was believed to have kraaled thousands of cattle, goats and sheep. Cattle ranching was as a result regarded as the backbone of the Maungwe territory. Abundant grazing and fertile land improved cattle farming. As the society was ahead of its time, they used the cow-dung as fertilizer, thus improving yields per-capita. Cattle were and is still a form of lobola, draught power and other laborious work. Cattle also provide the people with milk and meat thereby enhancing their health. Even present day, the Maungwe community has large herds of cattle, goats and sheep. Rearing of small livestock is being done and it thus provide dietary needs to the people. It is therefore prudent to argue that Maungwe Kingdom is enjoying the benefit of land ownership and black empowerment.

The development of education systems in Makoni area is a commendable step towards community development. Development in school infrastructure such as  Mugoti High School, Mutungagore Secondary School, Muvhimwa Primary, Muziti Mission School, Nhahonye Secondary School, St. Faith School, St Joseph Secondary School, St Killian’s Secondary School, St Theresa High School, Sanzaguru High School and Tsikada Secondary School to mention but a few.  Education development in Makoni district is aimed at providing good quality education to the society and this is evident through highly literate people who are using the knowledge and skills obtained in learning facilities to develop the Maungwe dynasty. The Chiefs are playing a pivotal role by providing land to the council for the construction of these marvellous infrastructures. It is therefore, prudent to credit Maungwe leadership in shaping and developing Makoni district. Infrastructural development is also witnessed by the construction of clinics and hospital in Makoni district. Existence of Rusape General Hospital, Tsikada Clinic, Rest-Camp clinic, Dhanji Clinic are a clear example of community development.

Maungwe Chiefdom is doing wonders to promote and uphold cultural values of Makoni district. Villages and communities under the kingship of Chief Makoni are being fostered to promote sound family values. Every society is governed by its culture, norms and values. The values are prescribed in a way to see the continuity of Makoni society. Religion is also practised in Makoni. Interestingly, Chief Makoni, had the onus to take measures to preserve the culture, tradition, history and heritage of their communities, including sacred shrines, places and mountains. As the Maungwe people are agriculturists, the chief spearheads rain-making ceremonies at the beginning of every rain season. This is done to appease the spirit medium and ancestors. The practise saw brewing of beer, music and dancing. Human settlement in sacred shrines and mountains is an offense that attracts a stiffer fine in the district. Adulterous activities- Makunakuna in Makoni district is a dismissible offense and the chief has the right to resettle these people. It is also the role of Chief Makoni to observe and preserve the cultural norms and values of the Makoni dynasty. The chief also uses myths and taboos to do his work. Respect of totems is also being initiated to preserve the environment in Makoni district.

Makoni dynasty has survived for years through good leadership. Shift of leadership in Makoni society is being done smoothly and systematically. Thus, the society became egalitarian. Respect of chiefdom in Makoni is the reason behind community prosperity.

Author: Helen Gwatidzo (Master’s degree in African Economic History UZ)

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69 Replies to “The establishment of Makoni Kingdom”

  1. I think you must revisit the history of the Maungwe chieftainship your presentation is somehow lacking some valid information

    1. Is the writer aware that Chipunza and Makoni are brothers, Chipunza(Jembere) being the elder brother to Makoni(Muswere) and their father being Sabarawara the son of Gunguwo origins of this clan is said to be Tanzania. Sabarawara(Mubvakure) is the first Chief to have led and settled his people in Maungwe territory at Chipadze and was succeeded by Jembere( Chipunza) upon his death. Muswere (Makoni) is said to taken over the Maungwe clan (Madziwa chihwa)’s land to found his Chiefdom separate from Chipunza, however with the advent of colonialism there was much distortion of this important history to the extant that there now intermarriages between the Chipunza and Makoni clans when they areareof of the same Nyati Shonga totem. It can never be a true, correct
      and accurate presentation leaving out this Sabarawara( Mubvakure), Jembere(Chipunza), Muswere(Makoni) connection.

      1. This is the part many people leave out to understand the true origin of the Nyati clan and how there is Nyati Makoni and Nyati Chipunza. Thank you my brother for the explanation.

      2. Nyati may I kindly have a contact person to unravel this history. I have a wish to put our nyati history into writing or documentary for our children. Because there is no people who are so united like the nyati

      3. You are very right and I 2nd you from my own understanding that economic history writer lacks depth research on the Makoni history, he needs to revisit her research.

      4. True Makoni people they taken over the Madziwa people because history says Makoni people came as vavhimi so Makoni akabata mhuka then choosing part of the mhuka yanga yabatwa Madziwa chose musana and makoni chityu and makoni was like musana its for ladies so starting from today wapasi pangu…………

        1. True Makoni came when our great Ancestor Mutwira was the chief of the area and the Name Makoni came as a Nickname after they tricked Mutwira to give up the remaining of the area he controlled pending the agreement that ‘Makoni’ was to control from Headlands to Mucheke river and Mutwira was to control the whole East of Rusape. Ana Makoni vakatibira ushe kkkkkk. The article lackes deep research anyways

      5. Sabarawara had three sons, Jembere (Chipunza), Muswere (1st denoted Makoni), then my Great great grandfather, Chamasezu or Chemasezu or Chinamasezhu popularly known as Mukuwapasi…….

      6. My father is a nyati Makoni and my mom is of the chipunza clan. Always wondered how the 2 are related. Thank you

    2. Thank you Author for the good work, My question is , please elaborate if you can —the name Murongo, Varongo.
      According to the meaning of the name it means concubines/
      Is the name being used correctly. On which Chiefdom was the name first used?

  2. Mandingaisa you said it well. Zimtribes, you may need to engage the Chipunza Mhina Chieftainship for a more elaborate and accurate history of the Nyati dynasty

  3. Nyati may I kindly have a contact person to unravel this history. I have a wish to put our nyati history into writing or documentary for our children. Because there is no people who are so united like the nyati

  4. Thank you guys for sharing the information of our tribe. My name is tinotenda chinembiri Makoni from kadoma. My uncle’s father was know for taking nyati as a domestic animal. So today i researched about our big family coz i am proud of it

  5. I am touched by this knowledge I’ve aquired about my Nyati-Makoni origin. Thank you so much for sharing! My name is Rufaro Makumbe. I wish to visit my soil i.e. Rusape-‘Chendambuya’ lol kkk ndakazvinzwao pandakota chitupa handikuzive hangu

    1. Oh my come home, you might be our lost princes. I’m from Neshena village, our sacred mountains are Gomo Reshena, Gomo reChangadzo.
      Neighbour villages are Chimwono, Bukuta, Dziruni, Gambe, Haisoswi, Zuze, Mude-mude /KwaMudhemudhe, Gwasira,Chiduku,Gandanzara which we are originally from Bvunza-wabaya Nyabvure vaera Humba Makombe. Intermarriage with Mukamba-chaza, Nherera and Chiduku Dynasty. Wealth in agriculture, cattle, goats, chicken and economic social entrepreneurship.

      Famous People are Mari-jeni, Mari-pakuenda, Garatsa, Nhiwatiwa, Chigunduru, Bayayi, Nyabvure, Tendengu, majakwara, Kambanga, Mdara Jojo, Fombe, Tandi etc

  6. Thanks guys for the information. I am Arnold Mhukayesango from Rusape. It helped me on my research for exams. Thank you fam

    1. Amazing, my grandmother was a Shonga from Denzva. Surname Makoni. I grew up hearing my father talk about Chipunza, Mhukayesango, Chingaira, kwaMudhe mudhe etc. My father is from Rukweza.

  7. Very interesting, thank you so much to the writer. You just took me back home. I feel so much proud to see all places that I know, which I have visited physically,the live of my Makoni district.

    Zvaitwa Nyati,zvaitwa Makoni,zvaitwa hombarume,vanaisi vemvura👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾👏🏾

  8. Thank you for the information. My name is Mukuwapasi N Samuel. I’m from Mukuwapasi Village, MAKONI.

    Zvaitwa Nyati, Shonga. 🤝

  9. You left those who migrated to Chiundura, Sanyati and Gokwe. The descendents of Kudyanzara. The Hozheri, Chiguvare ….

  10. Is maungwe history about the makoni chiefs only. i thought maungwe includes Chiduku, Tandi and Makoni dynasties which are different and have their own history. May we also have the Tandi and Chiduku history if you have so that we may understand the full Maungwe dynatsies history.

    1. Maungwe is a hotch potch of various people. Among them are the Chiefs with a non Nyati Totem. Among them are Mambos Chiduku and Mambo Tandi. These are of the Moyo Totem. They are Rozvis whose primary role was to install Mambos since the country at one time was under their control. They are Chiefs in their own right. They were chief justices of their time. So Chirandu Mukosera this a bit about your history.

      1. Thanx .
        We moved so much that am not even sure where exactly am from .

        We are now in Tandi relocated from gandzara..

  11. Though I don’t understand you very well but I will agree… Originally the Nyathi Makoni (Manguni) people came along Lt. Mzilikazi in regiments, Izinyathi, Mzinyathi… after his quarrel with King Shaka. They are of Nguni origin,
    the descendants of Nyathi of Langa of Bhele not the descendants of Nyati of Rimbale of Mongwe.

  12. Perhaps we need to set a very knowledgeable committee to document the true story of the Maungwe people under Chief Makoni. I miss “key” words like Chipadze (curve when the skeleton of someone from Tanzania! asked his children to carry bones to the new land they were going). I am sure somewhere east of Rusape there is a sacred curve where these bones are still there!
    I miss the kings that were mortified in skins of oxen!
    Sure Makoni was a young charismatic brother of Chipunza. I miss the story of Makoni planting mbanje at certain location to convince Madziwa that he had been in the area before!!! I miss the story of Professor Makhurane that links the Bapedi and the Nyathis of Makhoni/Chipunza etc. The researcher has started the background of this long story! We still have a heavy load to lift to establish the truth!!! I miss the Chingairas. There is a long way to go!!!! If we miss it now we will never get it right. What about Maparura who was tasked to assign areas to machindas like Chiduku, Chembabuya, Gandanzara, Makumbe, Rukweza, Tandi and Maparura (others gave him the name maparura because akaparura nyika yamambo Makoni!!!) . We need a well researched document otherwise we will leave the generation after us a confused past. Mai wangu ishonga Nyati we kwaMakoni in ndiri Mwana we kwa Saunyama!!!!!

  13. I am a Nyathi, Makoni from Tanda, an area between Chikore, Maparura and Weya.
    Someone asked about the Chingairas. The great warrior, Makoni, who fought the whites at Gwindingwi was called Chingaira Makoni.
    It is a common practice that members of the same family can use different surnames. Thus, some of the Makonis chose to use the first name of their grandfather, Chingaira, as a surname while others continued with using Makoni as their surname. This happened to many of us now known as the Chidukus, Chiendambuyas, Gwasiras, etc. The fact is, we are one!

    1. That is my area as well pliz help us to share the correct history to our children. With the new curriculum even vana vekuprimary want to know their history

  14. The Sunday Mail
    Chipunza chiefdom: Setting record straight
    6 years ago

    Chief Chipunza (Fungai Mukonyora, 96 years) the 14th Mhina chief , together with Ishe Mubvakacha, born Luke Chipunza, the current chairman of Chief Chipunza’s Advisory Council

    Mukwini Chipunza

    The media in Zimbabwe is awash with stories suggesting that the Chipunza chieftainship does not exist. In some circles it is suggested that it only started in 1952 and, therefore, has no place in the so-called Makoni district, including Matunhu (Headlands).

    This disinformation has been a deliberate effort by some misinformed elements who wish the whole Mhina clan (Chipunza chiefdom) dead or extinct. We want to put it on record right from the start that Matunhu (Headlands) belongs to the Mhina clan (Chipunza chiefdom).

    The Adolf Hitler-like approach of trying to increase one’s living space is the driving force by elements still suffering from a colonial hang-over. It is common knowledge that during the Rhodesian colonial era, some few chiefs who were loyal to the Rhodesian government were appointed paramount chiefs to superintend over others, especially those who were fighting the white man during the second Chimurenga.

    The same happened in Rusape and resultantly the district ended up carrying the name of one chief when there were five chiefs. This article is designed to correctly and factually inform the public, including those are misinformed, about the Chipunza people.

    Historical evidence to prove the existence of this chieftainship more than 450 years ago in the Matunhu area, now Headlands, is made available below for those that may have been fed with wrong information and for those interested in our traditional history. This is designed to correct the lies that the public has been subjected to through the media.

    Around 1500, a man called Gunguwo lived in Tanganyika. Gunguwo had a son called Sabarawara whose sons included Jembere (Chipunza), Muswere (Makoni), Chamasezu (Mukuwapasi), Bvumbe and Chirara, Guse, Karatiwepi, Sena and Zambara, among others. Gunguwo and his clan were elephant hunters (wadzimba) from where their title Dzimbahwe is derived.

    Gunguwo had an altercation with some of his neighbours over hunting rights in Tanganyika. To make peace, Gunguwo decided to migrate southwards. By this time Gunguwo was advanced in age. He assigned his son Sabarawara and his two grandsons Jembere (Chipunza) and Muswere (Makoni), sons of Sabarawara, to go and look for an ideal place to settle with the family.

    Sabarawara led the delegation and migrated south until they came to a place south of present-day Epiphany Mission in Rusape. There they found a Mutwira who lived in the caves along the Rusapwe River (corrupted to Rusape). Mutwira was the leader of the Ungwe people who lived in the area.

    Sabarawara and Mutwira discussed Sabawara’s purpose of visit. Mutwira was taught how to make fire so that he would roast fish and cook other foods. He was also introduced to the use of salt in meat. (it is important to underline that Mutwira ate raw meat prior to the arrival of Jembere and Muswere).

    They had some rituals after which they agreed that Sabarawara and his people could settle west of Rusape River up to Mucheke River, while Mutwira retained the area east of Rusape River. Sabarawara and his sons then went back to Tanganyika with good news to his father, Gunguwo and family. Mutwira nicknamed Sabarawara “mubvakure” because he was coming from a distant place and Sabarawara nicknamed Mutwira “madziwa” because he was staying in the waters of Rusape River.

    The claim that Muswere (Makoni) was a son of Gunguwo is a blatant lie by those bent on twisting historical facts to further their selfish interests and should, therefore, be dismissed with the contempt it deserves. One does not need to be rocket scientist to see that this is simple gymnastics of recent origin, designed to position Muswere at the same level with his father, Gunguwo.

    This would then make Jembere (Chipunza) son to Muswere. The fact has been and will always be that Chipunza is the elder brother to Makoni. It is also mischievous, for anyone to entertain Makoni’s claim to be paramount chief even over his elder brother Jembere (Chipunza).

    For a fact, one Zambe Makoni who worked for 50 years as a native messenger to the Native Commissioner’s office in Rusape, was rewarded for his “outstanding loyalty and support” to the colonial government by being appointed paramount chief.

    The nation should not be misled to link the paramount chieftainship status to the much talked about Chief Chingaira Makoni of the first Chimurenga era who died more than 50 years before Zambe’s reward by the colonial government.

    On arrival in Tanganyika after more than a year, Sabarawara found his father Gunguwo in bad health, most likely due to his advanced age. They appraised him and family on their happy findings, organised the family and their livestock and set on a journey to the newly found home. After crossing the Zambezi River, they got to the area of Chief Chipuriro and there, Chief Gunguwo died.

    The family, with the assistance of vazukuru Nyambiya and Manyara, did rituals accorded to a chief. Before he died, Gunguwo had instructed the family that should he die, the heir to the chieftainship (mambo achange achitonga) should carry his remains, always. Nyambiya prepared the remains traditionally and after mourning, they proceeded with their ancestor (now remains) to the new-found land. Sabarawara was now the Chief of the Mhina clan.

    They came to Mahovha (present-day Macheke) and briefly settled there. Sabarawara sent a delegation to re-establish contact with Mutwira and to advise him that they had arrived but their chief had died along the way and they were carrying his remains. They were also to seek permission to move into the Ungwe area as earlier agreed. Mutwira honoured the agreement and they moved to settle at a hilly place called Chipadze, present-day Harleigh Ruins.

    On arrival, his eldest son Jembere (Chipunza) assisted in organising the family and running the chieftainship while Muswere (Makoni) went out hunting. The Mhina people lived harmoniously with the Mutwira people to this day.

    The effect of Gunguwo’s instruction to have his remains carried by “mambo anenge achitonga” always is that he will always be guiding the family with his remains representing his physical presence. These remains, including his knobkerrie, have been passed from one chief to the other since then, as it is the source of power of the Mhina chiefs. To this very day, Chief Chipunza is using the same knobkerrie (Mhina, Mwedzi Usiku naChimhini) and he is the custodian Gunguwo’s remains.

    It should be made clear to all those who are trying to use political muscle to force their way into Chipadze that Gunguwo was never buried there. Anyone who wants to access Gunguwo’s remains should talk to Chief Chipunza (Mhina chieftainship) following the channels given by the elders of the clan and not riot police.

    While Muswere had gone hunting across Rusape River with other young members, the clan headquarters at Chipadze suffered an epidemic and the chief, Sabarawara died.

    Jembere, the eldest son, took over as chief.

    A message was sent to Muswere from Chipadze advising him and part of the family he had of the epidemic and that the chief had died. Muswere was advised not come but stay away until the epidemic was over. While across Rusape River, Muswere established contact with Mutwira and entered into an arrangement.

    This arrangement led Mutwira to give Muswere part of his remaining area east of Rusape River. History has it that Mutwira later felt cheated by Muswere and nicknamed him Mukoni/Magone, after he had tricked Mutwira into letting go his remaining area. It is from this incident that the name Makoni is derived.

    Muswere then established his separate chieftainship in the new area, which was scenic and very beautiful with abundant supply of water. Muswere’s new founded Makoni chieftainship ran their affairs separate from the original Mhina chieftainship to the east of Rusape River, though unannounced.

    In 1625, Chief Jembere Gunguwo (Chipunza) died and his sons sent a word to Muswere to come and take over as chief. Muswere declined to return to Chipadze and instead returned a message that the sons of Jembere should inherit the chieftainship and run their affairs as he was then comfortable with his new set-up to the east of Rusape River.

    This historic statement from Muswere (now Makoni) in 1625 had two consequences. It effectively pronounced the official birth of the present-day Makoni chieftainship and officially divorced the Makoni people (Muswere’s descendants) from the original Mhina (Gunguwo) chieftainship.

    Today, only the Chipunza people are referred to as Wamhina while the Makonis are referred to as Wasangano named after Sangano, their place in Makoni Reserve. It is also very important to understand that the present-day Makoni Reserve is the rightful place and area for the genuine Makonis.

    The claim by the current Chief Makoni and his followers that Matunhu (Headlands) falls under Chief Makoni is a desperate effort to establish a home away from home as he cannot set foot into the real Makoni chieftainship area i.e Gwindigwi, Matotwe, Chihomva, Chitsotoso, Muonwa and Muonanwa, where the Makoni spirits rule the roost. For all we know, that is because of their questionable relationship to the chieftainship.

    Holding onto a colonial paramount chieftainship hang-over has even led the Makonis to relocate their traditional chief’s court from the traditional Gwindingwi (where Chingaira and others used) to set it up alongside Rusape magistrate courts.

    It is also a violation of the Traditional Leaders Act, which has no provision of a traditional chief’s court in an urban area.

    These two Nyati chieftainships lived harmoniously, respecting each other as brothers with their cultural relationships. On several occasions, the (Mhina) Chipunza chieftainship assisted the (WaSangano) Makoni chieftainship in their several wars against Chief Mutasa. One well documented battle was the popular Mhanda battle, where Chipunza lost his fine warriors including Mukundadzviti, Mombeyarara, Marimba and others fighting for and in support of his young brother, Makoni.

    Such was their relationship and co-existence until the Land Apportionment Act of 1930. From this Act, Matunhu/Mhina fell under the white commercial farms and the settlers’ government displaced all natives. Matunhu/Mhina was declared crown land and Chief Chipunza was supposed to be moved to Gokwe but Chief Makama Makoni pleaded with the authorities against the move to send his brother, Chief Chipunza to Gokwe.

    His argument was that Chipunza was the custodian of Gunguwo’s remains. If Chipunza was moved to Gokwe leaving Makoni in Rusape, Makoni was vulnerable without access to these remains. As a result of Makoni’s plea, Chief Chipunza was forcibly moved to Chiduku Reserve, Mutungagore in the mid 1940s.

    Chief Chipunza was allowed to move with only 31 villages while all of his other subjects were scattered all over the district and beyond. Some settled in Murewa, Tanda Hwedza and many other places.

    The fact that Makoni appealed for reinforcement from Chipunza during the Mhanda battke is in itself a confirmation that Makoni acknowledged the superiority and strength of his elder brother, Chief Chipunza.

    There is no way a brigade can ever appeal for help from a battalion. The picture that one Chief Makoni wants to portray, of Chipunza’s subservience to Makoni is, therefore, a figment of his imagination, lack of knowledge and a deliberate effort to misinform the nation.

    Interestingly, the battle of Mhanda was fought well before the date the Makonis are setting as the birthday of the Mhina or Chipunza chieftainship. The displacement of the Mhina people from their original place happened well before the date that Chief Makoni is setting as the start of the Chipunza chieftainship.

    For the record, in 1952 Mambo Chipunza had long been forced to relocate to Mutungagore.

    That forced move did not in any way empower any other chief to takeover Matunhu/Mhina, now Headlands area. It should be clear to all that Matunhu is for waMhina.

    Matunha/Mhina (Headlands) is the original place of the Chipunza chiefdom, the original Nyati chieftainship linked to Gunguwo, the father of the clan while Wasangano, Makoni’s reign from Makoni Reserve.

    This Nyati dynasty has been in existence since the mid-1500s in Zimbabwe.

    I find this a well researched article. I am a chihwa by the way directly descended from Mutwira AKA Madziwa

    1. My late father is Sithole – Makoni from the border between Mozambique and Zimbabwe. He says am Nyati – Buffalo and clan Makoni. I wish someone with information to share with me on how do these two names interlink. I was born to a South African Tsonga mother who is from Chabalala. I am told both Sithole and Tshabalala are Nguni’s (Zulu) but my father is from Mozambique and my clan name (Makoni is from Zimbabwe). My late father speaks Ndau language.. Nhiabhereketa. Anyone with information please email me as I need to come visit my ancerstors and perform rituals.

  15. Does anyone have information on who were Chief Makoni’s generals in charge of the Mhanda battle against Chief Mutasa. Information I am gathering is that some of the common surnames in Makoni District were rewarded by Mambo and were awarded nzvimbo dzekutonga kubva Baddlley kusvika kuna Mwarazi. One such surnames is the Nemaungwe Nyati Mhenhu with wana Shonga being the female Nyatis. Muswere from my understanding is Nyati Mhenyu (Shonga). The Nenaungwe surname is synonymous with Muswere and Makoni wanowa vana nevazukutu wa Mambo Gunguwo anobereka Mubvakure.
    Also who were the generals or Changamire Makonis right hand men who fought the Gwindingwi battles against the settlers.

    1. Thank you . Am kamusasa surname and have always thought , can makoni also be my surname.
      Thank you all for the knowledge

  16. Muswere Makoni is the second son to Guguwo his brother was Sabarawara who was appointed by his father Gunguwo to lead his young brothers including Muswere Makoni to go far for resettle Gunguwo was a king mudunhu reChiri kuTanganyika yawakunzi Tanzania nhasi
    Chakaparadzanisa Sabarawara nemunun’una wake ndechichi Makoni akaenda kunovhima mhiri kwerwizi Rusape Sabarawara akasara achigara nemwana waMuswere kuita mudzimai akabata pamuwiri wakaronga zano ndokutumirai shoko kuti kunokwakauya chirwere chapedza vanhu sakuusauye kuno tingapera tose sezvineiwo ishe Sabarawara wakazofa mwanakomana waSabarawra mukuru uyo ainzi Jembere/Chipunza akatumira Kuna Muswere sezvo wariwo baba wanga wasara kuti mukoma wenyu wakashaika chiuyai mugare umambo Muswere akaramba nekuti anga atowe mambo Kare kuumambo hwanga atorera Mutwira huya asi Zita raSabarawra rabva rapara nahasi akuna kana imba inonzi imba yaSabarawara asi kwaka daidzwa imba yedangwe rake Jembere chipunza

  17. One sided article, the district has 5 chiefs Tandi, Chiduku, Chipunza, Chikore & Makoni all with differing history

  18. Just listened to an article on smtv. Not sure if it is correct we need makonis to add or subtract so that iur children have the correct history while we are still alive

  19. Please note that Jembere(Chipunza) is brother of Muswere(Makoni) sons of Sabarawara(Mubvakure).
    Zvinonzi Jembere ndiye akarara nemwanasikana vaMuswere ndosaka akazopiwa nickname yekunzi Chipunza(kuputsa ukama).

  20. Very informative information we are getting here.
    I understand Nehumba was the first born (son) of Muswere.
    Who were the sons of Nehumba?

  21. I am researching on the biological trant of the Makoni, Maondera, Manuhwa family. Those who have more information can please help me

  22. 1. we have heard how the Makoni name came about. What of the Chipunz one?
    2. Seems the message to Muswere for him not to come back home may never have been meant to protect him coz hosha yacho yakataurwa haina nhorowondo yekuzopedza vanhu ka. Most likely was to prevent zvibhakera zvaizobuda pakutora hanzvadzi apo. Hameno. Zita rokuti Chipunza rakauya sei?

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