African dignity is bestowed from the one’s roots. This is the case of Chivi (Chibi)residents as their society’s roots is traced as the descendants of Mashonaland East Province. Societal values are important and they are collected to construct a resounding and sensible history of a tribe. Chivi chieftainship has transformed and shaped the peoples livelihood. Cattle ranching, gold mining and hand craft activities have been key to the Chivi people.
The leadership has also done exceptionally well in fostering peace, stability and promotion of good quality, respect of cultural values, norms and customs. This policy paper will trace the family roots of Chivi traditional leadership and examine clan development.
Chivi district lies in Masvingo Province. Historical facts reveal that, Chivi dynasty was an offshoot of the fall of the Rozvi Empire. Currently, it is important to note that the area is boarded to the north by people under chief Chivi of the Shumba Murambwi totem- family of their fore-father Nehoreka and to the west under headman Kuvhirima and Mspambi of the Dziva totem- family of their fore father Chief Nyaningwe.
Chivunguvungu son of Nehoreka of the Shumba Murambwi totem migrated from Mutoko to Masvingo residing in the special corner present day Chivi district. Nehoreka family had super natural powers and had the ability to perform mystical deeds. These powers were also vested in his elder son Chivunguvungu which he later used to steal Mutoko residents cattle and other valuable products. After, embarking on a 350 kilometre walk Chivunguvungu was welcomed by the Dziva-Hove people. Thus the totem meaning a big pool of water. This group was in the leadership of Chief Nyaningwe. It is prudent to acknowledge that Chief Nyaningwe was the sole responsible leader of his clan in the present day Chivi district under Masvingo Province. Chivunguvungu was blessed with strong and able bodied sons namely Mudzungairi (meaning a wanderer) and Mudzore who resided in present day Mashava, known as chief Bere. One of his sons Mudzungairi had the ideology of togetherness and he preserved the cultural beliefs and values of his forefather whilst in Mutoko area. Bearing these attributes, Mudzungairi bestowed these attributes to his family members mainly his sons Tavengegwei and Zumba. Unfortunately, Chivunguvungu died leaving his legacy to his sons.
Moreover, nature pronounced its fate leading the death of Mudzungairi the elder son of Chivunguvungu. Smooth transfer of fatherhood was passed on to Tavengegwei. Family legacy, ideology and values were quickly transplanted into Tavengegwei. Interestingly, Tavengengwei had the same attributes of his grandfathers Nehoreka and Chivunguvungu of performing magical powers. Oral tradition reveals that, Chief Nyaningwe-Dziva was gifted with beautiful daughters namely Chiroodza and Shandurai. Shandurai was believed to have stunned Tavengegwei with her beauty. Shandurai classical beauty confused Tavengegwei forcing him to plan marriage. However, this was not easy as Shandurai was the Chief’s princess. Through his courage and commitment, Tavengegwei approached Chief Nyaningwe family with his matter. With the blessing of his father, Shandurai was allowed to marry Tavengegwei. Oral tradition reveals that, Chief Nyaningwe demanded a live warthog and a python as bride price. This mission was made possible by the ability bestowed in Tavengegwei of performing magical powers. Marriage between the two was made possible earning Shandurai the name vaChifeza. Nature blessed the two with five children. His children were Matsveru, Musvuvugwa, Chiwara, Musunda and Chidavarume. It is worth noting that, Tavengegwei became a polygamist and he was blessed with other sons and these included; Madamombe, Madyanove and Mazarire to mention but a few. However, their father Tavengegwei died leaving Chief Nyaningwe in custody and guidance of the children from vaChifeza family.
Chief Nyaningwe of the Dziva totem took good custodianship of his nephews mainly from her daughter Shandurai. However, his nephews decided to dethrone their uncle chief Nyaningwe chieftainship. Tavengegwei children also had abilities of performing magical powers. Oral tradition reveals that, Chief Nyaningwe and his nephews convinced each other to go for a bath and to perform rituals at Runde River. With the idea of dethroning their uncles, Tavengegwei sons led by Musunda the elder one attacked their uncle while swimming. Unfortunately, the pool turned red with blood. However, some managed to escape this mystical act and crossed the Runde River shouting ‘CHIVI CHAWA’ a crime has been committed. This shouting earned Chivi district the current name Chivi. Thus, how the Tavengegwei son managed to dethrone their uncles. Chief Nyaningwe died on the incident and his remaining people were easily subdued in the new chieftainship under the Shumba totem and their uncles became headmen.
Chieftainship was however bestowed in the hands of Tavengegwei sons who then multiplied the dynasty with their born Shumba Murambwi totem. Masunda became Chief Chivi. He was quick to trace his roots thereby preserving his forefather’s cultural values and resonating them being the real Buja people from Mutoko not the Karanga. Tavengegwei’s other sons became headmen. For instance his son Madamombe became famous and present day the area is still intact. The Chieftainship is thus traced from Nehoreka to present day Chief Donald Chivi of the Shumba Murambwi totem.
By Kudzanai Rushiri, B.A Hons in Economic History
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